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Thursday, August 24, 2017

The Most Iconic Rainforest Animal of Indonesia

Not only abundant with its cultural heritage, Indonesia is also known for its rich flora and fauna. For fauna, quoted from pagewikipedia, Indonesia has 73 animals that are only found in Indonesia. But unfortunately many endemic animals of Indonesia has been declared by International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) as threatened species. This is because of the excessive hunting and many of the original habitats are damaged and lost. Despite the efforts to prevent excessive extinction, both through the participation of governments, national and international conservationists, it is hard to escape from the IUCN red list. Here are 10 rare animals from Indonesia's rainforest most threatened its existence.

1. Sumatran Tiger

Sumatran Tiger. Credit: http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/

There are two species of endemic tiger of Indonesia, Sumatran Tiger and Bali. But the Bali tiger has been declared extinct since 1937. The Sumatran tiger is currently estimated at only 500 individu. The Sumatran tiger faces two types of threats to survive: they lose their habitat due to high rates of deforestation and are threatened by illegal trade where parts of their bodies are traded at high prices on the black market for traditional medicines, jewelry, amulets and decorations. Sumatran tiger can only be found in the sumateran rainforest, Indonesia.
The Sumatran tiger is the smallest tiger sub-species living today. Adult males can be up to 60 cm tall and the length from head to foot reaches 250 cm and weighs up to 140 kg. Female tigers have an average length of 198 cm and weigh up to 91 kg. Sumatran tiger skin color is the darkest of all tigers, ranging from reddish yellow to dark orange.

2. Sumatran Rhinoceros

Sumatran Rhinoceros by 26Isabella via Wikimedia Commons

There are two types of Indonesian rhinos, both of it are very rare, the Sumatran Rhinoceros (two-horned rhinoceros) and Java Rhinoceros (one-horned rhinoceros). Research say that Sumatran Rhino population are not more than 300 tail. While the Javan Rhino, although it has been made captive at the Ujung Kulon National Park, but thie population continues to decline. Latest data say the number only reaches dozens of individu only.
The Sumatran rhino, is the only Asian rhino that has two horns. The Sumatran rhino is also known to have the most hair compared to the entire sub-species of rhinoceros in the world, so it is often called hairy rhino (haired rhinoceros). Other features are large ears, grayish-brown or reddish-mostly covered by hair and wrinkles around the eyes.
The length of the front horn usually ranges from 25 cm, while the rear horn is usually relatively short and not more than 10 cm. When the Sumatran rhino child is born to adolescence, usually the skin is covered by reddish-brown hair. Along with the increasing age of these animals, the hair that covers the skin more rarely and turns blackish. The body length of an adult animal ranges from 2-3 meters with a height of 1 - 1.5 meters. Weight is estimated to range between 600-950 kg.

3. Orang Utan

Orang Utan. Credit: www.pixabay.com

There are two types of indigenous orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Indonesia, namely Sumatran Orangutans and Bornean Orang Utan. The Sumatran orang-utan is the rarest species, currently the wild Sumatran orang-utans can only be found in North Sumatra and Aceh. The largest population of orangutans can be found in tropical rainforest of Leuser National Park. The borneo orangutans have a larger population than the Sumatran orang-utan, they can be found in conservation forest areas in almost all areas of Borneo.
In contrast to the Borneo orangutans, Sumatran orangutans have long cheekbones on male orangutans. The body length is about 1.25 meters to 1.5 meters. The weight of female adult orangutan is about 30-50 kilograms, while the males are around 50-90 kilograms. The fur is reddish brown.

4. Proboscis Monkey

Proboscis Monkey. Credit: www.pixabay.com

Since the ice age melts, Bekantan (Nasalis larvatus), trapped on the island of Borneo. Therefore Bekantan natural habitats exist only on the island of Borneo. These primates evolved differently from other primates on the earth, long shaped noses such as hanging bulbs and long-sized, fat-headed, males stocking various leaves and fruits, in which the leaves are fermented to produce natural immunity and energy sources.
Bekantan live in mangrove forests, swamps and riparian areas that provide enough feed for these animals. The natural condition of habitat of proboscis is located in the wetland area such as peat swamp forest, mangrove, this animal is highly dependent on the riparian area that is the transition region between the river with the mainland, where this region has a distinctive character, due to the combination of aquatic, land and river environments, Small populations of bekantan exist living in dipterocarp forests and riverside forests.

5. Sulawesi Black Monkey

Yaki Monkey. Credit: Yi Chen via Flickr

Black monkey (Macaca nigra) is commonly called Yaki or Wolai Monkey. Yaki is easily recognized for having unique features, while other monkeys have crested hair and pink buttocks such as heart shape. In addition, Yaki has a large body feature with a jet black color with a shiny fur covering his entire body, except the palms, face, and buttocks.
Yaki  or wolay monkeys are the original black primates of Sulawesi Island. This monkey entered the ranks of endangered species in the world. From research conducted by Juan-Fran Gallardo in 2010, it is known the population of sulawesi black monkey is less then 5,000 individu. Despite being critically endangered, hunting for this Sulawesi endemic species is still happening.
At the top of his head is hair-shaped; Has a more prominent snout; Its tail length is about 20 cm; And his ass is pink. Height of about 40-60 cm with weight between 7 to 15 pounds.

6. Anoa

Anoa Endemic to Sulawesi. Credit: Attis 1979 via Wikimedia Commons

Anoa is an endemic animal of Southeast Sulawesi. This Southeast Sulawesi province Mascot are living in the forest which is still lush and difficult to access by humans. These animals can not be nurture as a cattle, because they can not be tamed. This animals are categorized as almost extinct species since the 1960s. In fact, over the last five years the population has decreased dramatically. It is estimated that there are now no more than 5,000 in the wild.
There are two species of Anoa, namely lowland anoa and mountain anoa. The apparent differences of the two types of anoa, visible from the physical. Lowland Anoa has a smaller body, its tail is also short and soft, besides its horn is in a circular shape. While mountain anoa tends to be large, has a long tail, white legs, and triangular horns.
At first glance this animal looks like a buffalo, weighing between 150 to 300 kilograms and height 75 centimeters. Due to its size, the animal named Latin Bubalus is included in the smallest wild ox species. That's why these animals are called dwarf buffalo.

7. Arwana Red


Red Arwana fish or Red Siluk (Sclerophages formosus) is an endemic animal of Indonesia that inhabit the upper stream of Kapuas River (commonly known as Heart of Borneo) in West Kalimantan. This beautiful rare fish has bright red scales, with a little gold sparkle that makes it look so elegant. No wonder if Arwana Red gets the nickname Dragon Fish.
This popular fish has a Low breeding abilities and many are caught for sale, so its status is threatened. However, with special permission, you can keep this elegant animal. In condition, the dragon fish must be accompanied by a certificate and microchips that put in the body, as a marker.

8. Jalak Bali

Bali Starlings. Credit: DickDaniels

Bali Starlings or Leucopsar rothschildi is an Indonesian endemic bird that can only be found on the western part of Bali Island. Unfortunately, these medium-sized chirping birds are extremely rare and endangered, even in their natural habitat. If not maintained, it is not impossible The Bali Starling will be extinct after other endemic Bali, Bali Tiger. In the wild, the population is estimated to reach only a dozen individu.
Bali Starling or Curik Bali has clean white hairs all over the body, except at the tail end and black wings. Her unlit pink cheeks are bright blue, with gray feet. If you visit the artist's houses in Batuan Village, you will find Bali Starling birds that are often used as Balinese painting objects there.

9. Tree Kangaroo

Kangaroo Wondowoi. Credit: Richard Ashurst via Flickr

Kangaroo Wondowoi (Dendrogalus mayri) is one of the rare animals from Papua, the number of these animals is very rare in nature and endangered. The IUCN Red List publishes data that the population of these marsupial pets ranges from only about 50s.
Tree kangaroos tend to be very clumsy when they are above ground because of their long and heavy tail. But they are very agile and fast when on a tree. These endemic animals are shorter and broader legs with long, curved claws that can help them move quickly and cling to trees.
The tree kangaroo is the only marcopod that can move the hind legs independently when walking simultaneously. Its long, heavy tail provides balance when jumping from tree to tree. These animals are reliable jumpers, they can jump up to 9 meters or 25 feet from tree to tree.

10. Tarsius


Tarsius is also called Mentilin (Sumatra) and Ingkat (Kalimantan). The color is reddish brown to brownish brown. Tarsius indeed deserve to be called a tiny primate because it only has a length of about 10-15 cm with a weight of about 80 grams. Even Tarsius pumilus or Pygmy tertiary which is the smallest type of tarsius only has a body length between 93-98 millimeters and weight 57 grams. The tail length is between 197-205 millimeters.
The name Tarsius is based on the special physical features of their body, the elongated tarsal bone, which forms their ankles so they can jump as far as 3 meters (nearly 10 feet) from one tree to another. Tarsius also has a long tail that is not hairy, except at the edges. Each of the hands and feet of this animal has five long fingers. These fingers have nails, except the second and third fingers that have claws.
In addition to Bangka and Belitung, these animals are also found in Riau and the island of Borneo.

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